• Users Online: 40
  • Print this page
  • Email this page


 
 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 7  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 22-28

Procrastination and self-compassion in individuals with anxiety disorders


Department of Clinical Psychology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India

Date of Submission29-Apr-2021
Date of Decision10-May-2021
Date of Acceptance22-May-2021
Date of Web Publication18-Jul-2021

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Paulomi Matam Sudhir
Department of Clinical Psychology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bengaluru, Karnataka
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/tjp.tjp_20_21

Rights and Permissions
  Abstract 


Background and Aim: Literature on procrastination suggests that it is related to varied negative outcomes in the nonclinical population; however, there is a paucity of studies examining procrastination in the clinical population. We examined procrastination and self-compassion in persons with anxiety disorders.
Methods: Forty-nine individuals diagnosed with an anxiety disorder, between 18 and 50 years of age, were recruited from a tertiary care center. Participants were assessed using the Decisional Procrastination Scale, the Adult Inventory of Procrastination, the Self-Compassion Scale, the Overall Anxiety Severity and Impairment Scale, and the Beck Depression Inventory-II.
Results: Results indicated that individuals with anxiety disorders reported elevated procrastination and low self-compassion. Self-compassion and decisional procrastination were significantly negatively correlated. The subjective distress due to procrastination reported by the participants was significantly positively correlated with decisional procrastination. Self-compassion and anxiety severity were found to be negatively correlated. Self-compassion was a significant predictor of decisional procrastination and anxiety severity.
Conclusion: The findings of the present study highlight the significance of assessing procrastination in anxiety disorders and indicate that self-compassion-based interventions may be helpful in alleviating anxiety symptoms and in reducing decisional procrastination.

Keywords: Anxiety disorders, depression, procrastination, self-compassion


How to cite this article:
Petwal P, Sudhir PM, Mehrotra S. Procrastination and self-compassion in individuals with anxiety disorders. Telangana J Psychiatry 2021;7:22-8

How to cite this URL:
Petwal P, Sudhir PM, Mehrotra S. Procrastination and self-compassion in individuals with anxiety disorders. Telangana J Psychiatry [serial online] 2021 [cited 2021 Oct 23];7:22-8. Available from: http://www.:tjpipstsb.org/text.asp?2021/7/1/22/321768




  Introduction Top


Procrastination is the voluntary delaying of a planned task despite the knowledge of its negative consequences[1],[2] and is related to several negative psychological outcomes.[3],[4] Procrastination has been studied both in the context of a delay in acting (behavioral procrastination) and a delay in decision-making or decisional procrastination.[5] It has been conceptualized as both a trait and a state variable. Despite a vast amount of research, there is a want of agreement about the nature of procrastination and it is sometimes considered a personality variable.[6] Trait procrastination is defined as the likelihood to delay a task that is otherwise essential to attain goals.[1] Task procrastination can involve various psychological factors, such as task aversiveness, fear of failing, emotional disturbance, tendency to rebel, impulsivity, difficulties managing time, external aspects, as well as a tendency to enjoy working in pressure.[2] These factors may be understood as failures in self-regulation and an attempt at temporary mood regulation.[7]

Procrastination has drawn considerable attention from researchers, largely with respect to academic procrastination.[8] In clinical populations, procrastination has been found to be positively related to anxiety and depression.[9] Procrastination has also been considered to be an attempt at temporary mood repair, achieved by delaying decision-making or the task.[10] However, it is ineffective in the long run and linked with increased negative affect.[11],[12] Thus, negative mood may result in task delays, further prolonging negative affect, therefore not only resulting from procrastination but also leading to it.

From a regulatory framework, procrastination is seen as a failure of one's self-regulatory ability, and in monitoring and prioritizing goals, eventually leading to a sense of failure and criticality toward self. This perspective has led to the exploration of the relationship between procrastination and self-compassion.[13] Self-compassion refers to an individual's attitude toward self and plays an important role in how people engage in problem-solving in everyday situations. Self-compassion is defined as kindness to oneself in the face of inadequacy and failures, and acceptance of one's negative emotions, as part of collective human experience.[14] Greater level of self-compassion has been related to lesser self-conscious emotions such as shame or guilt, greater self-forgiveness, and reduction in future procrastination and negative mood.[15],[16] Self-compassion may thus act as a buffer in the experience of negative events and enhance positive feelings toward oneself when encountering difficulties. Studies examining self-compassion and anxiety across clinical samples suggest that self-compassion reduces the severity of anxiety and functions as a buffer.[17],[18],[19]

Recent evidence indicates that the distress connected with procrastination may be due to intrapersonal processes linked to negative self-evaluations and self-criticality that procrastinators experience, when dealing with difficult tasks, in addition to failure in task completion.[8],[20] Procrastinators report a “downward spiral” that begins once they begin procrastinating, this adds more unfinished work for future, increases urgency, and at the same time affects self-evaluation, resulting in increased anxiety and stress.[11] A meta-analysis investigating self-compassion as a mediator of the trait procrastination-distress link revealed procrastination and self-compassion to be moderately negatively related.[21] Self-compassion is a resilience factor.It promotes adaptive self-regualtory skills and thereby reduces distress related to negative self-evaluation and it impact on self.[13] Self-compassion indicates reduced self-criticality and harshness toward self, thereby reduced negative affect, including those emotions associated with procrastination.

Anxiety disorders have high prevalence and are categorized as significantly contributing to global disease burden of disability-adjusted life years.[22] A national mental health survey in the Indian subcontinent reported a lifetime prevalence of anxiety disorders as 3.7%.[23] Anxiety disorders are heterogeneous in nature and may often have a waxing and waning course and tend to be chronic. Individuals with anxiety disorders use a variety of behavioral and cognitive strategies to reduce their anxiety. In addition, they also experience significant difficulty in decision-making and problem-solving,[24],[25] which may often result in procrastination. There is considerable impairment in functioning, often as a result of factors such as task avoidance, procrastination, perfectionism,[8] and fear of failure.[26]

Studies indicate that individuals who tend to procrastinate may be more self-critical, contributing to their distress and anxiety, and they further procrastinate as a way of coping with emotions. While individuals who procrastinate experience considerable stress and negative emotions, factors contributing to this relationship of mitigating the experience of stress are not clear. There is a dearth of studies in clinical populations and few examine this relationship in the context of anxiety disorders. Understanding factors contributing to these outcomes of procrastination and distress or anxiety, would help in identifying specific treatment components. There is some evidence supporting the finding that the procrastination-stress link may be mediated by self-compassion, which is considered to be the antithesis of self-criticality.[21],[27] Therefore, in the present study, we examined procrastination in persons with anxiety disorders, and the relationship between procrastination and self-compassion. Specifically, our study attempted to address the following questions, namely what is the nature of procrastination reported by persons with anxiety disorders, and the role of self-compassion with negative mental health outcomes of anxiety, depression, and procrastination in this sample.


  Methods Top


Sample

The present study was a cross-sectional study, and a nonprobability convenience sampling method was used. Forty-nine treatment-seeking adults, fulfilling criteria for a primary diagnosis of agoraphobia, panic disorder, specific phobia, social phobia, generalized anxiety disorder, obsessive–compulsive disorder, mixed anxiety and depressive disorder, other specified anxiety disorder, or anxiety disorder unspecified as per ICD 10 (F40-42),[28] aged between 18 and 50 years were recruited into the study. Those with a diagnosis of bipolar affective disorder, schizophrenia, current psychoactive substance dependence (except nicotine), and those who had received psychotherapy in the last 6 months were excluded.

Measures

Participants were assessed on measures of procrastination, self-compassion, and severity of anxiety and depression. Permission was sought from authors for the use of measures that were not available in the public domain, and copyrighted measures were purchase from publishers.

Decisional Procrastination Scale

Decisional Procrastination Scale (DPS) is a 5-item scale[29] that examines procrastination in the context of conditions where one is required to make decisions. Participants are asked to rate the items on a Likert scale from 1 (not true for me) to 5 (true for me). A single score computed by summing all items indicates the propensity to engage in procrastination. It has also shown good internal consistency (α = 0.80).[29]

Adult Inventory of Procrastination

The Adult Inventory of Procrastination (AIP) is a 15-item scale that assesses procrastinatory behaviors manifesting in various day-to-day activities.[30] The extent of disagreement (1) or agreement (5) with the items is rated along a Likert scale. Seven of the statements are reverse scored, and a sum of all these items gives a single score. The alpha coefficient for the AIP is 0.79 and it has a test–retest reliability of 0.71.[30]

The self-compassion scale

The Self-Compassion Scale (SCS) assesses diverse components of self-compassion, namely “self-kindness, self-judgment, common humanity, isolation, mindfulness, and overidentification” through 26 items.[14] In this present study, subscale scores were also utilized, in addition to the total self-compassion score. The measure has demonstrated adequate psychometric properties.[14]

Overall anxiety severity and impairment scale

The Overall Anxiety Severity and Impairment Scale (OASIS) includes five self-report items that evaluate the occurrence of anxiety, how intense the symptoms are, consequent avoidant behaviors, and resulting dysfunction.[31] Participants consider varied anxiety-related experiences when responding to the items. Therefore, it simultaneously assesses across different disorders how severe the symptoms are and the extent of impairment resulting from it. Its reliability and validity is established across clinical samples.[32]

Beck depression inventory-II

It is a self-report scale comprising 21 items that measure the thoughts, emotions, and biological symptoms occurring in depressive disorders.[33] It has been used to distinguish individuals that have and those who do not have a depressive disorder, and is found to be a valid and reliable measure for the same.[33]

Subjective procrastination-related distress

Patients also reported another procrastination rating before the administration of the scales. In this, respondents were instructed to rate on a scale of 0–10 how much their tendency to delay affects their or others' functioning, Respondents were instructed to rate on a scale of 0–10, the extent to which their tendency to delay affected their functioning and that of others (0=does not affect at all and 10= interferes functioning completely).

Procedure

Participants meeting study criteria were recruited from a tertiary government mental health-care facility in southern India. The study was reviewed and approved by the National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences Institute Ethics Committee (NO. NIMH/DO/IEC (BEH.Sc.DIV)/2016). Written informed consent was sought from all participants, following which they were screened on MINI Neuropsychiatric Interview Schedule (MINI).[34] Participants who met the criteria were assessed on other study measures individually. All measures and clinical interviews were administered by the first author in English.

Data analysis

Data were analyzed using the SPSS version 20.0 IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 22.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp. for Windows.[35] Bivariate correlations were carried out between procrastination, self-compassion, severity of anxiety, and depression. Simple linear regression analysis was also used to examine the predictors of procrastination, depression, and anxiety severity.


  Results Top


Demographics and clinical features of sample

The average age of the sample was 30 years (standard deviation [SD] = 6 years). There were a greater percentage of males (71%) than females, and more than 90% of the sample was from an urban background and had completed graduation. More than half the sample was unmarried, and belonged to nuclear families [Table 1]. Majority reported procrastination for different activities. A little more than ½ (57.1%) reported procrastination in more than one life domain, whereas more than 14 (28.6%) reported procrastinating on at least one of the domains of work, academic, personal activities, or decision-making.

The scores on measures of procrastination, self-compassion, and symptom severity indicate high mean scores on both DPS and the AIP, compared to adult samples in other studies,[36] indicating high tendency to delay tasks related to decision-making and other domains. On the SCS, the mean total self-compassion score was 68.51 (SD = 13.6). Participants scored higher on self-judgment, overidentification, and isolation on the SCS, than on positive dimensions of self-kindness, mindfulness, and common humanity, respectively, indicating higher self-criticality and harshness toward self. Sample had moderate levels of both depression and anxiety severity [Table 2].
Table 1: Sociodemographic characteristics of the clinical sample

Click here to view
Table 2: Mean, standard deviations, and range of scores on procrastination, self-compassion, anxiety severity, and depression

Click here to view


Relationship between procrastination, self-compassion, anxiety severity, and depression in the clinical group

Correlations carried out between procrastination, self-compassion, severity of anxiety, and depression [Table 3] indicated that self-compassion and decisional procrastination were significantly negatively correlated. AIP and DPS scores had low positive correlations with anxiety severity, with no significant correlations with depression. Scores on SCS and the OASIS were significantly negatively correlated and anxiety severity and depression scores were positively significantly correlated. Subjective distress due to procrastination was significantly correlated with greater decisional procrastination, and had a low positive correlation with behavioral procrastination scores [Table 4], indicating that they had greater distress due to delays in decision-making than with actual task delays.
Table 3: Correlations among procrastination, self-compassion, anxiety severity, and depression

Click here to view
Table 4: Correlations between subjective procrastination rating and Adult Inventory of Procrastination and Decisional Procrastination Scale scores

Click here to view


On the linear regression analysis, self-compassion was found to be a significant predictor of decisional procrastination (R2 = 0.220, F (1,47) =13.253, P < 0.001). An adjusted R2 = 0.203 indicated that self-compassion accounted for 20% of the variance in decisional procrastination (B = −0.469; P < 0.001), indicating that self-criticality contributed to delays in decision-making. Another stepwise linear regression showed significance for a model with self-compassion as a predictor of anxiety severity (R2 = 0.119, F (1,47) =6.346, P < 0.05). The adjusted R2 = 0.100 for this model suggests that self-compassion accounted for 11% of the variance in anxiety severity (B = −0.345; P < 0.05). These findings indicate that self-compassion was a predictor of procrastination and anxiety severity in the present sample.


  Discussion Top


We studied procrastination in individuals presenting with anxiety disorders, and further examined its relationship with self-compassion and symptom severity. Our findings indicated a high tendency to delay decision-making, and delay tasks in domains such as academics, work, and personal activities.

Procrastination has extensively been examined in the academic context, however, few studies have examined it in clinical samples. Clinical observations suggest that procrastination is not limited to academic contexts. Procrastination can be seen as underlying cognitions that can affect decision-making as well. Decisional procrastination is the strong predisposition to delay decision-making.[37] When individuals have to make a decision, they may go through a process of assessing their ability to handle the situation and required resources. Negative self-appraisals regarding one's decision-making abilities are likely to lead to anxiety and delays in decision-making.[38] Thus, decisional procrastination is also seen as strategy to regulate anxiety by delaying decision-making.

Decisional procrastination was significantly positively correlated with the subjective distress due to procrastination, indicating that while persons with anxiety tend to delay making decisions in order to regulate anxiety, they experience significant distress as a result of this delay, setting up a vicious cycle. Procrastination is thus seen as both a failure of self-regulation and a coping strategy to temporarily regulate negative affect.[39] While procrastinating decisions may lead to mood repair, it eventually worsens it, placing increased pressure on oneself, in future to manage both mood and incomplete tasks, leading to a spiral of symptoms.[40] Literature on decisional procrastination indicates that indecision is related to difficulties in self-regulation and processing all pertinent material required for decision-making.[41]

On the measure of self-compassion, participants reported greater levels of self-judgment, isolation, and overidentification. Self-compassion is associated with improved psychological states, and greater levels of self-compassion are related to lesser distress and psychopathology, as self-compassion involves taking a balanced view of one's emotions and experiences.[17],[40] Literature on self-compassion in clinical conditions indicates that the strength of the relationship between negative subscales and psychopathology is stronger than that of positive subscales.[41] The negative dimensions of self-compassion share similarities with characteristics seen in anxiety disorders, with increased self-criticality, isolation being closely linked to loneliness and socially avoidant behavior, and overidentification involving increased focus and attention on oneself.[42]

The negative relationship between self-compassion, decisional procrastination, and anxiety severity is consistent with literature on self-criticality and decisional procrastination.[43] Self-compassion, which involves the acceptance of one's failures and reduced self-criticality, enables individuals to be less distressed in the face of failures, thereby reducing the use of maladaptive strategies such as avoidance and procrastination in emotion regulation.[10] Analysis of the two distinct types of procrastination, indicated that decisional procrastination had significant correlations with such conflicting beliefs about oneself. Differences observed between one's real self and ideal self, have also been shown to predict maladaptive procrastination.[44] The results of the current study with self-compassion as a predictor of decisional procrastination corroborate this.

The self-regulatory framework of procrastination and self-compassion further aids in understanding the results of the present study. Persons with greater self-compassion have greater self-acceptance, with respect to their experiences and a supportive nonjudgmental attitude, while connecting with others, thus experiencing less isolation. A compassionate response toward self, in the face of difficulties, enhances positive affect, while reducing negative affect, thereby increasing their ability to mobilize resources and use adaptive coping responses.[45] This also reduces the likelihood of using procrastination as a strategy for temporary mood repair.[11] Thus, the results of the present study are consistent with findings that greater self-compassion is associated with reduced anxiety severity and reduced use of procrastination, a strategy that perpetuates negative affect and self-depreciatory cognitions. Our findings also underscore the importance of using strategies that enhance self-compassion and reduce self-criticality in psychological interventions in persons with anxiety disorders, while working to enhance adaptive coping strategies.

Limitations

The study was not without limitations. The sample size was small and heterogeneous with respect to clinical diagnosis; a larger sample size would have allowed more rigorous statistical analysis for mediation and permitted comparisons across subgroups of anxiety disorders. Inclusion of only self-report scales in assessing procrastination was another limitation. The inclusion of interviews in addition to self-report measures to evaluate procrastination would have strengthened the study. This was partially addressed by the subjective ratings of procrastination across domains in life.

Strengths

Despite the links between procrastination and negative health outcomes, there are few studies in clinical samples. The findings of the present study contribute to our understanding of procrastination in a clinical sample. An attempt was made to examine both cognitive and behavioral dimensions of procrastination. Although the sample was heterogeneous, it was clinically representative and thus helped in the understanding of procrastination and self-compassion as being transdiagnostic.


  Conclusion and Future Directions Top


Our findings with respect to self-compassion and procrastination and anxiety severity highlight the need to include strategies to enhance self-compassion in therapy, when working with mood and procrastination.[46] While we used the SCS to assess self-compassion as conceptualized by Neff,[14] self-compassion encompasses other aspects such as motivational capacities and intentionality. These need to be examined in more detail in future studies on self-compassion. There is also a need to use clinically validated measures of procrastination that are relevant for clinical samples as available measures have been developed in the context of academic tasks or nonclinical samples.

Ethics

This study was ethically approved by the Institute Ethics Committee (NO. NIMH/DO/IEC (BEH.Sc.DIV)/2016), National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, India.

Financial support and sponsorship

The first author was awarded a junior research fellowship from the University Grants Commission, India (Ref. no. 460/December 2015), for her MPhil Program in Clinical Psychology, and this research was part of the academic fulfillment of the program.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Lay CH. At last, my research article on procrastination. J Res Pers 1986;20:474-95.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Steel P. The nature of procrastination: A meta-analytic and theoretical review of quintessential self-regulatory failure. Psychol Bull 2007;133:65-94.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Stead R, Shanahan MJ, Neufeld RW. “I'll go to therapy, eventually”: Procrastination, stress and mental health. Pers Individ Dif 2010;49:175-80.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Germer C. The Mindful Path to Self-Compassion: Freeing Yourself from Destructive Thoughts and Emotions. NY: Guilford Press; 2009.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Steel P. Arousal, avoidant and decisional procrastinators: Do they exist? Pers Individ Dif 2010;48:926-34.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Boysan M, Kiral E. Associations between procrastination, personality, perfectionism, self-esteem and locus of control. Br J Guidance Couns 2017;45:284-96.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Balkis M, Duru E. Procrastination, self-regulation failure, academic life satisfaction, and affective well-being: Underregulation or misregulation form. Eur J Psychol Educ 2016;31:439-59.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Flett GL, Stainton M, Hewitt PL, Sherry SB, Lay C. Procrastination automatic thoughts as a personality construct: An analysis of the procrastinatory cognitions inventory. J Ration Emot Cogn Behav Ther 2012;30:223-36.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Beswick G, Rothblum ED, Mann L. Psychological antecedents of student procrastination. Aust Psychol 1988;23:207-17.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Pychyl TA, Sirois FM. Procrastination, emotion regulation, and well-being. In: Sirois FM, Pychyl TA, editors. Procrastination, Health, and Well-Being. Elsevier Academic Press; 2016. p. 163-88.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Sirois F, Pychyl T. Procrastination and the priority of short-term mood regulation: Consequences for future self. Soc Pers Psychol Compass 2013;7:115-27.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Rebetez MM, Rochat L, Barsics C, Van der Linden M. Procrastination as a self-regulation failure: The role of inhibition, negative affect, and gender. Pers Individ Dif 2016;101:435-9.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Terry ML, Leary MR. Self-compassion, self-regulation, and health. Self Identity 2011;10:352-62.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Neff KD. The development and validation of a scale to measure self-compassion. Self Identity 2003;2:223-50.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Sirois FM. Absorbed in the moment? An investigation of procrastination, absorption and cognitive failures. Pers Individ Dif 2014;71:30-4.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Wohl MJ, Pychyl TA, Bennett SH. I forgive myself, now I can study: How self-forgiveness for procrastinating can reduce future procrastination. Pers Individ Dif 2010;48:803-8.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Dimitra A, Eirini K, Christos P, Agathi L, Anastassios S. Self-compassion in clinical samples: A systematic literature review. Psychology 2020;11:217.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.
Hoge EA, Hölzel BK, Marques L, Metcalf CA, Brach N, Lazar SW, et al. Mindfulness and self-compassion in generalized anxiety disorder: Examining predictors of disability. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2013;2013:576258.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.
Werner KH, Jazaieri H, Goldin PR, Ziv M, Heimberg RG, Gross JJ. Self-compassion and social anxiety disorder. Anxiety Stress Coping 2012;25:543-58.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.
Sirois FM, Tosti N. Lost in the moment? An investigation of procrastination, mindfulness, and well-being. J Ration Emotive Cogn Behav Ther 2012;30:237-48.  Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.
Sirois FM. Procrastination and stress: Exploring the role of self-compassion. Self Identity 2014;13:128-45.  Back to cited text no. 21
    
22.
GBD 2015 DALYs and HALE Collaborators. Global, regional, and national disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 315 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE), 1990-2015: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015. Lancet 2016;388:1603-58.  Back to cited text no. 22
    
23.
Gautham MS, Gururaj G, Varghese M, Benegal V, Rao GN, Kokane A, et al. The National Mental Health Survey of India (2016): Prevalence, socio-demographic correlates and treatment gap of mental morbidity. Int J Soc Psychiatry 2020;66:361-72.  Back to cited text no. 23
    
24.
Hartley CA, Phelps EA. Anxiety and decision-making. Biol Psychiatry 2012;72:113-8.  Back to cited text no. 24
    
25.
Beckers T, Craske MG. Avoidance and decision making in anxiety: An introduction to the special issue. Behav Res Ther 2017;96:1-2.  Back to cited text no. 25
    
26.
Haghbin M, McCaffrey A, Pychyl TA. The complexity of the relation between fear of failure and procrastination. J Ration Emot Cogn Behav Ther 2012;30:249-63.  Back to cited text no. 26
    
27.
Salehzadeh Einabad Z, Dorban G, Nainian M. The mediating role of self-compassion in the relationship between anxiety and procrastination. Zahedan J Res Med Sci 2017;19:e1773. [doi: 10.5812/zjrms. 11773].  Back to cited text no. 27
    
28.
World Health Organization. The ICD-10 classification of mental and behavioural disorders: clinical descriptions and diagnostic guidelines. World Health Organization. 1992. https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/37958.  Back to cited text no. 28
    
29.
Mann L. Decision making questionnaire: Parts I and II. In: Ferrari JR, Johnson JL, McCown WG. editors. Procrastination and Task Avoidance: Theory, Research, and Treatment. New York: Plenum Press; 1982. p. 71-96.  Back to cited text no. 29
    
30.
McCown W, Johnson J, Petzel T. Procrastination, a principal components analysis. Pers Individ Dif 1989;10:197-202.  Back to cited text no. 30
    
31.
Norman SB, Cissell SH, Means-Christensen AJ, Stein MB. Development and validation of an overall anxiety severity and impairment scale (OASIS). Depress Anxiety 2006;23:245-9.  Back to cited text no. 31
    
32.
Campbell-Sills L, Norman SB, Craske MG, Sullivan G, Lang AJ, Chavira DA, et al. Validation of a brief measure of anxiety-related severity and impairment: The Overall Anxiety Severity and Impairment Scale (OASIS). J Affect Disord 2009;112:92-101.  Back to cited text no. 32
    
33.
Beck AT, Steer RA, Brown G. Beck Depression Inventory–II. San Antonio; TX: Psychological Assessment; 1996.  Back to cited text no. 33
    
34.
Sheehan DV, Lecrubier Y, Sheehan KH, Amorim P, Janavs J, Weiller E, et al. The Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.): The development and validation of a structured diagnostic psychiatric interview for DSM-IV and ICD-10. J Clin Psychiatry 1998;59 Suppl 20:22-33.  Back to cited text no. 34
    
35.
IBM Corp. IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 20.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp; 2011.  Back to cited text no. 35
    
36.
FerrariJR, O'Callaghan J, Newbegin I. Prevalence of procrastination in the United States, United Kingdom, and Australia: arousal and avoidance delays among adults. N Am J Psychol 2005;7,1:1-6.  Back to cited text no. 36
    
37.
Janis IL, Mann L. Decision Making: A Psychological Analysis of Conflict, Choice, and Commitment. New York, Free Press; 1977.  Back to cited text no. 37
    
38.
de Palo V, Monacis L, Miceli S, Sinatra M, Di Nuovo S. Decisional procrastination in academic settings: The role of metacognitions and learning strategies. Front Psychol 2017;8:973.  Back to cited text no. 38
    
39.
Ferrari JR, Pychyl TA. Regulating speed, accuracy and judgments by indecisives: Effects of frequent choices on self-regulation depletion. Pers Individ Dif 2007;42:777-87.  Back to cited text no. 39
    
40.
MacBeth A, Gumley A. Exploring compassion: A meta-analysis of the association between self-compassion and psychopathology. Clin Psychol Rev 2012;32:545-52.  Back to cited text no. 40
    
41.
Barnard LK, Curry JF. Self-compassion: Conceptualizations, correlates, and interventions. Rev Gen Psychol 2011;15:289-303.  Back to cited text no. 41
    
42.
Muris P, Petrocchi N. Protection or vulnerability? A meta-analysis of the relations between the positive and negative components of self-compassion and psychopathology. Clin Psychol Psychother 2017;24:373-83.  Back to cited text no. 42
    
43.
McGarity-Palmer R, Excell S, Ferrari JR. “I can't decide, and it upsets me”: Assessing self-critical cognition, indecision, and hope among young adults. Curr Issues Pers Psychol 2019;7:8-14.  Back to cited text no. 43
    
44.
Orellana-Damacela LE, Tindale RS, Suarez-Balcazar Y. Decisional and behavioral procrastination: How they relate to self-discrepancies. J Soc Behav Pers 2000;15:225.  Back to cited text no. 44
    
45.
Finlay-Jones AL. The relevance of self-compassion as an intervention target in mood and anxiety disorders: A narrative review based on an emotion regulation framework. Clin Psychol 2017;21:90-103.  Back to cited text no. 45
    
46.
Germer C. The Mindful Path to Self-Compassion: Freeing Yourself from Destructive Thoughts and Emotions. NY: Guilford Press; 2009.  Back to cited text no. 46
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]



 

Top
 
 
  Search
 
Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
Access Statistics
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)

 
  In this article
Abstract
Introduction
Methods
Results
Discussion
Conclusion and F...
References
Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed266    
    Printed0    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded18    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal


[TAG2]
[TAG3]
[TAG4]